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Information on this page is compiled from review Whole brain size and general mental ability by Rushton JP & Ankney CD published J Neurosci. 2009;119(5):691-731. and distributed under the Supplemental Terms and Conditions for iOpenAccess articles published in Informa Healthcare journals, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
The review presents data obtained in various studies to lay extensive statistical foundation for main conclusion, which states that brain size positively correlates with intelligence.
The brain size and general mental abilities (GMA)
Throughout the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the relation between whole brain size and GMA was almost universally accepted. The renowned French neurologist Paul Broca (1824–1880) measured external and internal skull dimensions and weighed wet brains at autopsy and observed that mature adults averaged a larger brain than either children or the very elderly, skilled workers averaged a larger brain than the unskilled, and eminent individuals averaged a larger brain than the less eminent. Charles Darwin (1871) cited Broca's studies in The Descent of Man to support his theory of evolution:
No one, I presume, doubts that the large size of the brain in man, relatively to his body, in comparison with that of the gorilla or orang, is closely connected with his higher mental powers. We meet the closely analogous facts with insects, in which the cerebral ganglia are of extraordinary dimensions in ants; these ganglia in all the Hymenoptera being many times larger than in the less intelligent orders, such as beetles. . .
The belief that there exists in man some close relation between the size of the brain and the development of the intellectual faculties is supported by the comparison of the skulls of savage and civilized races, of ancient and modern people, and by analogy of the whole vertebrate series.
Darwin's cousin, Sir Francis Galton (1888), was the first to quantify the relation between brain size and GMA in living people. He multiplied head length by breadth by height and plotted the results against class of degree in more than 1,000 male undergraduates at Cambridge University. He reported that men who obtained high honors degrees had a brain size 2%–5% greater than those who did not. Galton (1869) was also the first to formally propose the scientific concept of General Mental Abilities (GMA), which later was significantly advanced by Spearman in 1904 who introduced g-factor (the general factor of intelligence). Scores on the g-factor give the highest correlations with school grades, job performance, and other criteria.
Following World War II (1939–1945) and the revulsion evoked by Hitler's racial policies, craniometry became associated with extreme forms of racial prejudice. Research on brain size and intelligence virtually ceased, and the literature underwent vigorous critiques (Gould, 1978, 1981; Kamin, 1974; Tobias, 1970). However, modern studies confirm many of the earliest observations.
The human brain may contain up to 100 billion (1011) nerve cells classifiable into 10,000 types resulting in 100,000 billion synapses. The number of neurons available to process information may mediate the correlation between brain size and GMA. The bigger brain the more neurons it contains. The difference between the low end of normal (1,000 cm3) and the high end (1,700 cm3) of brain volume is about 4.283 billion neurons.
There is disagreement about whether or not brain size should be corrected for body size when examining brain size/GMA correlations. Controlling for body size changes the question from "Is IQ correlated with absolute brain size?" to "Is IQ correlated with relative brain size?" Although these are quite different questions, evidence shows that the answer to both is yes.
Reaction Time Measures
Reaction times (RTs) provide good measures of g. Reaction times are so easy to do that 9- to 12-year-old children can perform them in less than 1 s. On these simple tests, children with higher GMA scores perform faster than do children with lower scores, perhaps because reaction time measures the neurophysiological efficiency of the brain's capacity to process information accurately - the same ability measured by intelligence tests. Children are not trained to perform well on reaction time tasks (as they are on certain paper-and-pencil tests), so the advantage of those with higher GMA scores on these tasks cannot arise from practice, familiarity, education, or training.
Simple reaction time (SRT) measures correlate with IQ ~0.20, while more complex choice reaction time (CRT) measures correlate ∼0.40. In aggregate, RTs can correlate 0.70 with IQ (Jensen, 2006).
Autopsy studies show that brain mass increases during childhood and adolescence and then, beginning as early as 20 years, slowly decreases through middle adulthood, and finally decreases more quickly in old age. Briefly, the average mass of the brain increases from 397 g at birth to 1,180 g at 6 years. Growth then slows, and brain mass peaks at about 1,450 g before age 25 years. The mass declines slowly from age 26 to 80 at an average of 2 g per year. The decrease after age 80 years is much steeper, the loss being 5 g per year.
General intelligence shows concomitant increases during childhood and adolescence and then (slow) decreases between ages 25 and 45, and (faster) decreases after age 45. For example, when David Wechsler (1944) normed the first Wechsler–Bellevue test of adult intelligence on a fairly representative sample of the adult population of the United States, he found that all 10 of the diverse verbal and nonverbal subtests given to successive age groups from 18 to 70 years of age showed an average decline in test scores with increasing age.
Wechsler wrote: We have put forward the hypothesis that the decline of mental ability with age is part of the general organic process which constitutes the universal phenomenon of senescence, and have insisted upon the fact that the phenomenon begins relatively early in life. The evidence we have adduced for this hypothesis is the observed parallelism we have found in the decline of various physical and mental abilities.
In at least two studies (500+ and 7,130 people were tested), CRT (complex choice reaction time) declined from age 20 and SRT (simple reaction time) from age 50.
Socioeconomic position (SEP) differences
Nineteenth- and early twentieth-century data from Broca (1861) and others (Hooton, 1939; Sorokin, 1927; Topinard, 1878) suggested that people in higher status occupations averaged a larger brain or head size than those in lower ones.
The relationship between head size and occupational status has also been found after correcting for body size. Jensen and Sinha (1993) reviewed much of the literature. They drew an important distinction between a person’s socioeconomic position (SEP) of origin (the SEP attained by the person’s parents) and the individual’s attained SEP (the SEP attained by the person in adulthood). Correlations of IQ, head size, and other variables are always smaller when derived from the SEP of origin than when derived from attained SEP.
Rushton (1992a) used the externally measured cranial size of 6,325 U.S. servicemen and found that officers averaged significantly larger cranial capacities than enlisted personnel either before or after adjusting for the effects of stature, weight, race, and sex (1,384 vs. 1,374 cm3 before adjustments; 1,393 vs. 1,375 cm3 after adjustments). The differences between officers and enlisted personnel were found for both men and women, as well as for East Asians, Whites, and Blacks.
In both men and women, the ratio of brain mass to body size declines as body size increases. Thus, larger women have a lower ratio than smaller women, and the same holds for larger men compared with smaller men. Therefore, because the average-sized man is larger than the average-sized woman, their brain mass to body size ratios are similar. Consequently, the only meaningful comparison is that of brain mass to body size ratios of men and women of equal size. Such comparisons show that at any given size, the ratio of brain mass to body size is much higher in men than in women.
Among Whites 168 cm (5'7'') tall (the approximate overall mean height for men and women combined), brain mass of men averages about 100 g heavier than that of women, whereas the average difference in brain mass, uncorrected for body size, is 140 g. Thus, only about 30% of the sex difference in brain size is due to differences in body size.
The above results were confirmed in a study of cranial capacity in a stratified random sample of 6,325 U.S. Army personnel.
A stereological investigation by Pakkenberg and Gundersen (1997) found that men had about 4 billion more cortical neurons than did women, and this was not accounted for by differences in height. The average number of neocortical neurons was 19 billion in female brains and 23 billion in male brains, a 16% difference. In their study, which covered the age range from 20 years to 90 years, approximately 10% of all neocortical neurons were lost over the life span in both sexes. Sex and age were the main determinants of the total number of neurons in the human cortex, whereas body size per se had no influence on neuron number.
The sex differences in brain size present a paradox. Women have proportionately smaller average brains than men but apparently have the same intelligence test scores. According to Kimura (1999), women excel in verbal ability, perceptual speed, and motor coordination within personal space, whereas men do better on various spatial tests and on tests of mathematical reasoning. Ankney (1992, 1995) hypothesized that the sex difference in brain size relates to those intellectual abilities at which men excel; that is, spatial and mathematical abilities require more "brain power". Analogously, whereas increasing word-processing power in a computer requires some extra capacity, increasing three-dimensional processing, as in graphics, requires a major increase in capacity.
Richard Lynn (1994, 1999) provided a resolution of the "the Ankney–Rushton anomaly" of sex differences in brain size by resurrecting the nineteenth century proposition that men average slightly higher in general intelligence than women. He reviewed data from Britain, Greece, China, Israel, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Japan, India, and Indonesia, as well as the United States to show that men averaged about 4 IQ points higher than women on a number of published tests. He noted that age is an important variable because the male advantage in GMA does not emerge until the late adolescent growth spurt when brain size differences peak. Girls mature faster than boys, which give them an early advantage in language development and may mask later cognitive differences. Lynn suggested that this may have led generations of researchers, who relied on school samples, to miss the later emerging sex difference. Subsequently, in meta-analyses of general population samples on the Standard and Advanced Progressive Matrices, Lynn and Irwing (2004; Irwing & Lynn, 2005, 2006) found no sex difference among children aged 6-14 years but a male advantage from 15 years through old age. They found that by adulthood, the male advantage is equivalent to between 3.3 and 5.0 IQ points, with 4.6 being the best estimate.
Population group differences
Rushton (1997) analyzed population group differences from birth to age 7 years using measurements of head circumference and GMA gathered on 40,000 children by the U.S. Collaborative Perinatal Project (Broman et al., 1987). The results showed that at birth, 4 months, 1 year, and 7 years, the East Asian children averaged larger cranial volumes than White children who averaged larger cranial volumes than Black children. Within each group, children with larger head sizes obtained higher IQ scores. Moreover, the East Asian children, who averaged the largest craniums, were the shortest in stature and the lightest in weight, whereas the Black children, who averaged the smallest craniums, were the tallest in stature and the heaviest in weight; the differences in brain size were not due to body size.
The largest study of race differences in endocranial volume was by Beals et al. (1984) with measurements of up to 20,000 skulls from around the world. They found that East Asians, Europeans, and Africans averaged cranial volumes of 1,415, 1,362, and 1,268 cm3, respectively.
Rushton (1992a) also calculated average cranial capacities for East Asians, Whites, and Blacks from a stratified random sample of 6,325 U.S. Army personnel and found an average of 1,416, 1,380, and 1,359 cm3, respectively. This study allowed precise adjustments for all kinds of body size measures. Yet adjusting for these did not erase the differences in cranial capacity.
Population group differences in measured intelligence parallel those found in brain size (Jensen, 1998; Lynn, 2006; Rushton & Jensen, 2005). East Asians assessed in North America and in Pacific Rim countries average IQs in the range of 101–111, with a mean of 106. Europeans in North America, Europe, Australasia, and South Africa average an IQ of between 85 and 115, with a mean of 100. African-descended people in North America, the Caribbean, and Europe, as well as in Africa, average a mean IQ of from 70 to 90.
The same three-way pattern of race differences has been found using the simplest culture-free cognitive measures such as reaction time tasks, which 9- to 12-year-old children perform in less than 1 s. Lynn (2006) found that East Asian children from Hong Kong and Japan were faster than European children from Britain and Ireland, who in turn were faster than African children from South Africa. Using similar tasks, this pattern of racial differences was also found in California (Jensen, 1998; Rushton & Jensen, 2005). Within each group, the children with higher IQ scores perform faster those with lower scores.
Metabolically, the human brain is an expensive organ. Representing only 2% of body mass, the brain uses about 5% of basal metabolic rate in rats, cats, and dogs, about 10% in rhesus monkeys and other primates, and about 20% in humans (Peters et al., 2004). Moreover, as large brains evolved, they required more prolonged and complex life histories to sustain them. For example, across 234 mammalian species Rushton (2004) found that brain weight correlated with longevity (r = 0.70), gestation time (0.72), birth weight (0.44), litter size (−0.43), age at first mating (0.63), duration of lactation (0.62), body weight (0.44), and body length (0.54). Even after controlling for body weight and body length, brain size continued to predict the other variables (r = 0.59). From an adaptationist perspective, unless large brains substantially contributed to evolutionary fitness (defined as increased survival of genes through successive generations), they would not have evolved. In the evolutionary competition to find and fill new niches, there is always “room at the top” for larger brain size and greater behavioral complexity.
The sexual dimorphism in cranial size and cognitive ability likely originated partly through evolutionary selection of men's hunting ability and partly through the reproductive success socially dominant men have traditionally enjoyed. Population–group differences may have originated from evolutionary pressures presented in colder climates. Of course, brain size and intellectual performance are also affected by nutrition and experience.
The preponderance of evidence demonstrates that brain size is correlated positively with intelligence and that both brain size and GMA are correlated with age, socioeconomic position, sex, and population group differences. Correlation does not prove cause, but, just as zero correlations provide no support for a hypothesis of cause and effect, nonzero correlations do provide support. The brain size/GMA relation has been established both within and between species and brain size has shown a progressive trend upwards for 570 million years.
Brain size, of course, is also environmentally sensitive. For example, rats raised in complex environments have thicker cortices and larger brains than rats reared in impoverished environments (Diamond, 1988). This suggests that the direction of causality is bidirectional and complicated by gene–environment correlations and interactions. Genes for GMA likely cause individuals to experience more stimulating and complex environmental situations, thereby increasing their brain size and creating a “benign circle” between brain size and intellectual performance.
Numerous issues require much further research. Where exactly in the brain is GMA located and how is it mediated? Major advances here might soon be expected (Jung & Haier, 2007). Perhaps the most perplexing question is: where the genes are for brain size and GMA?Thousands of genes are expressed in the brain and null findings are common. Given that genetic effect sizes turn out to be extremely small, typically 0.1%, and contribute interchangeably and additively, most studies have been seriously underpowered to detect and replicate effects (Plomin et al., 2006). Association studies of many markers in thousands of individuals may be required to identify appropriate genes. Alternatively, just a few regulator genes may turn out to be crucial.
Please refer to ORIGINAL REVIEW for more information.
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